What is a Computer?
A computer is a general purpose machine that can:
– Accept Input Data
– Store Data
– Perform Computation
– Output Data
Main Components of a Computer
- Hardware which consist of the physical parts such as processor, memory, keyboard, monitor, mouse etc
- Software consists of all the programs which are set of instructions
What is Hardware?
Hardware components are the physical parts of the computer.
The main hardware components are:
Also known as processor. it is the brains of the computer and is responsible for fetching instructions from memory and executing them.
Holds/Stores the instructions that are executed by the CPU
Secondary Storage Devices
Such as hard drive, DVD etc
Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor..
How does computer memory work?
What is a computer?
What is a Program?
A program is a set of instructions
A Computer Program is coded instructions to a computer or other machine to perform a specific task.
A Programming Language is a formally constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a computer.
High Level versus Low Level Programming Languages
- High Level Programming Languages are written in human language and are easy to read and understand
- Low Level Programming Languages are written in machine language of binary (0s and 1s)
What is binary?
Binary is a number system represented by 0 or 1 and is the language used by computers to communicate. It is a base 2, 8 bit number system.
Example, 11111111 is equivalent to 255.
0 = OFF = NO = FALSE
1 = ON = YES = TRUE
Any kind of data, such as text, images and sound must be converted to binary in order for a computer to be able to process it.
- Set of instructions
- Translate a program from high level human language to low level computer language
- Execution of the translated instructions by the computer
Difference between Compile & run
In high-level languages such as Python and Java, instructions are written for humans to understand. In order for a computer to understand the program it has to be compiled. In other words, the program has to be translated into machine language.
Once a program is compiled the computer can understand the instructions and run it or in other words execute the instructions.
What is an algorithm?
An algorithm has a Start Point
It consists of step-by-step procedures for calculations
An algorithm terminates at a final ending state
- 2 Inputs: Enter 2 numbers A and B
- If A is equal to B –> print Equal
- If A is less than B –> print A is smaller than B
- If A is greater than B –> print A is greater than B
2 types of software
- System Software also known as Operating System
- Application Software such as Photoshop, Word etc
What is an Operating System?
What is an IDE?
IDE is the application used for creating software programs and stands for: